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TED简介2015 | 尤瓦尔赫拉利以共同而有具有争议的视界解说人类怎样由几万年前无关宏旨的物种位置走到今日地球操纵者。从这一解析的进程中,尤瓦尔让咱们咱们从头知道了宗教,人权,国家,民族,企业和金钱。往后前史的开展和打破又会带来怎样的改变?尤瓦尔言简意赅,让人脑洞大开的演说将帮你理清人类开展的严重头绪,从头审视咱们自己和由咱们操纵的国际!

中英对照翻译

70,000 years ago, our ancestors were insignificant animals. The most important thing to know about prehistoric humans is that they were unimportant. Their impact on the world was not much greater than that of jellyfish or fireflies or woodpeckers.

70000年前,咱们的祖先是微乎其微的动物。了解史前人类的最要害一点便是他们是无关宏旨的。他们对地球影响并不比水母、萤火虫或啄木鸟大多少。

Today, in contrast, we control this planet. And the question is: How did we come from there to here? How did we turn ourselves from insignificant apes, minding their own business in a corner of Africa, into the rulers of planet Earth?

现在,反过来了,咱们操控了这个星球。那么问题来了:咱们是怎样从曩昔变成现在这姿态呢?咱们是怎样从毫不起眼、在某个旮旯静静干活的猩猩,变成地球统治者的呢?

Usually, we look for the difference between us and all the other animals on the individual level. We want to believe -- I want to believe -- that there is something special about me, about my body, about my brain, that makes me so superior to a dog or a pig, or a chimpanzee.But the truth is that, on the individual level, I'm embarrassingly similar to a chimpanzee. And if you take me and a chimpanzee and put us together on some lonely island, and we had to struggle for survival to see who survives better, I would definitely place my bet on the chimpanzee, not on myself.

一般,咱们寻觅本身与其他动物在个别上的差异。咱们想去信赖--我也想去信赖-我自己是特其他,我的身体,我的大脑,让我比一只狗、一只猪或许一只猩猩愈加优胜。可是事实是,在个别层面,我跟一只猩猩是如此让人为难地类似。假如你把我和一只猩猩一同放在一个孤单的小岛,一同看看咱们谁能更好地生计下去。我肯定会赌那只猩猩赢,而不是我自己。

And this is not something wrong with me personally. I guess if they took almost any one of you, and placed you alone with a chimpanzee on some island, the chimpanzee would do much better. The real小孩发烧怎样办 difference between humans and all other animals is not on the individual level; it's on the collective level.

这不是我个人有什么问题。我估量,假如他们把你们任何一个人和一只猩猩放在某个小岛上,那只猩猩也会活得比你们更好。人类与其他动物的真实差异不是在于个别层面,而是团体层面。

Humans control the 周莹故乡planet because they are the only animals that can cooperate both flexibly and in very large numbers. Now, there are other animals -- like the social insects, the bees, the ants -- that can cooperate in large numbers, but they don't do so flexibly.

人类操控地球是由于他们是仅有能够大规模并灵敏地协作的动物。是的,有其他动物也能够大规模地协同,比方蜜蜂、蚂蚁这类社会性昆虫,可是他们做不到那么灵敏。

Their cooperation is very rigid. There is basically just one way in which a beehive can function. And if there's a new opportunity or a new danger, the bees cannot reinvent the social system overnight. They cannot, for example, execute the queen and establish a republic of bees, or a communist dictatorship of worker bees.

他们之间的协作是十分生硬的。基本上,一个蜂巢只能经过一种方法来作业。假如面临新的时机或危机,蜜蜂不能在一夜之间从头发明一个社会体系。比方,他们不能够处决蜂后并树立一个蜜蜂共和国,或许一个蜜蜂工人阶层专政gongchan主义政权。

Other animals, like the social mammals -- the wolves, the elephants, the dolphins, the chimpanzees -- they can cooperate much more flexibly, but they do so only in small numbers, because cooperation among chimpanzees is based on intimate knowledge, one of the other.

其他动物,比方狼、大象、海豚、猩猩这类社会性哺乳动物,他们能够更灵敏地协作,可是他们只能在小规模地协作,由于猩猩之间的协作仅仅根据一只对另一只猩猩的了解。

I'm a chimpanzee and you're a chimpanzee, and I want to cooperate with you. I need to know you personally. What kind of chimpanzee are you? Are you a nice chimpanzee? Are you an evil chimpanzee? Are you trustworthy?If I don't know you, how canTED英语讲演|《人类简史》作者:为什么人类会兴起-betway体育官网_betway官网手机版_betway文娱 I cooperate with you? The only animal that can combine the t股票市场wo abilities together and cooperate both flexibly and still do so in very large numbers is us, Homo sapiens.

我是一只猩猩,你也是一只猩猩,我想跟你协作。咱们需求私下地了解你。你是什么样的猩猩?你是一只好猩猩?你是一只坏猩猩?你值得信赖吗?假如我不知道你,我怎样能跟你协作呢?仅有能够一同把握两种才能,能够灵敏地协作并能十分大规模地去做的动物便是咱们,现代人。

One versus one, or even 10 versus 10, chimpanzees might be better than us. But, if you pit 1,000 humans against 1,000 chimpanzees, the humans will win easily, for the simple reason that a thousand chimpanzees cannot cooperate at all. And if you now try to cram 100,000 chimpanzees into Oxford Street, or into Wembley Stadium, or Tienanmen Square or the Vatican, you will get chaos, complete chaos. Just imagine Wembley Stadium with 100,000 chimpanzees. Complete madness.

在单对单,乃至10个对10个的情况下,黑猩猩或许比人类强。可是,假如1000个人类与平等数量的猩猩对立,人类能哈利法塔够容易制胜。理由很简单,那1000只黑猩猩完全不能协同协作。假如你把10万只黑猩猩塞进牛津街,温布利球场,天安门广场或许梵蒂冈,你看到的将会是完全紊乱的局势。幻想下10万只猩猩涌进温布利球场的蒋多多画面,简直让人完全抓狂。

In contrast, humans normally gather there in tens of thousands, and what we get is not chaos, usually. What we get is extremely sophisticated and effective networks of cooperation. All the huge achievements of humankind throughout history, whether it's building the pyramids or flying to the moon, have been based not on individual abilities, but on this ability to cooperate flexibly in large numbers.

当人类不计其数地集合在一同,一般咱们不会堕入紊乱。恰恰相反,咱们看到的是适当精密有用的协作安排网络。人类史上一切的显着成果,无论是制作金字塔或飞驰月球,都并非凭仗一人之力,而是根据大规模灵敏协作的才能之上。

Think even about this very talk that I'm giving now: I'm standing here in front of an audience of about 300 or 400 people, most of you are complete strangers to me. Similarly, I don't really know all the people who have organized and worked on this event. I don't know the pilot and the crew members of the plane that brought me over here, yesterday, to London. I don't know the people who invented and manufactured this microphone and these cameras, which are recording what I'm saying. I don't know the people who wrote all the books and articles that I read in preparation for this talk. And I certainly don't know all the people who might be watching this talk over the Internet, somewhere in Buenos Aires or in New Delhi.

试想一下我正在做的讲演:我站在这儿面临着300或许400号观众,大多数都未曾谋面。相同,我不怎样知道讲演安排方的作业人员,或许昨日载我到伦敦的飞翔师及飞机上的一切机组人员。我也不知道正在记载我讲演内容的麦克风及摄像机的发明制造者,或许我为这次讲演预备而阅读的书及文章的作者。我当然也不知道在布宜诺斯艾利斯或新德里一切经过网络观看这次讲演的人。

Nevertheless, even though we don't know each other, we can work together to create this global exchange of ideas. This is something chimpanzees cannot do. They communicate, of course, but you will never catch a chimpanzee traveling to som独眼小僧哪里多e distant chimpanzee band to give them a talk about bananas or about elephants, or anything else that might interest chimpanzees.

可是,即便对互相毫不了解,咱们仍然能够一同完结这次国际范围的思维交流。这个是黑猩猩无法做到的。当然,它们能够交流,但你绝不会看到它们跑到老远去给黑猩猩集体作关于香蕉、大象或其它或许招引它们的讲演。

Now cooperation is, of course, not always nice; all the horrible things humans have been doing throughout history -- and we have been doing some very horrible things -- all those things are also based on large-scale cooperation. Prisons are a system of cooperation; slaughterhouses are a system of cooperation; concentration camps are a system of cooperation. Chimpanzees don't have slaughterhouses and prisons and concentration camps.

协作当然并不总是带来好的成果。人类曩昔及现在所做过的一切恐惧作业,--咱们一直在一些十分恐惧的作业--都是根据大规模的协作。监狱,屠杀场,集中营都是协作体系,而黑猩猩不会有这些。

Now suppose I've managed to convince you perhaps t魔皇毒宠异世妖娆妃hat yes, we control the world because we can cooperate flexibly in large numbers. The next question that immediately arises in the mind of an inquisitive listener is: How, exactly, do we do it? What enables us alone, of all the animals, to cooperate in such a way? The answer is our imagination.

现在假定我已成功压服你信赖这点--由于人类能够大规模灵敏协作,咱们在掌控着这个国际。好奇心强的听众脑中显现的下一个即时问题则是:咱们具体是怎样做到的?是什么让咱们从一切动物中锋芒毕露,能够进行如此大规模协作?幻想力是答案。

We can cooperate flexibly with countless numbers of strangers, because we alone, of all the animals on the planet, can create and believe fictions, fictional stories.And as long as everybody believes in the same fiction, everybody obeys and follows the same rules, the same norms, the same values.

咱们之所以能够跟许多的陌生人灵敏进行协作,那是由于在这星球上一切的动物傍边,仅有咱们,懂得发明和乐意信赖虚拟出来的故事。一旦每个人都信赖同一个虚拟的故事,每个人就会遵从一致的规矩,一致的行为规范和一致的价值观。

AlTED英语讲演|《人类简史》作者:为什么人类会兴起-betway体育官网_betway官网手机版_betway文娱l other animals use their communication system only to describe reality. A chimpanzee may say, "Look! There's a lion, let's run away!" Or, "Look! There's a banana tree over there! Let's go and get bananas!"

一切其他的动物只用他们的交流体系去描绘实践。(好比方)一只大猩猩会说:“看!来了只狮子,咱们赶忙跑吧!”或许“看!那里有棵香蕉树!咱们曩昔摘香蕉吧!”

Humans, in contrast, use their language not merely to describe reality, but also to create new realities, fictional realities. A human can say, "Look, there is a god above the clouds! And if you don't do what I tell you to do, when you die, God will punish you and send you to hell."And if you all believe this story that I've invented, then you will follow the same norms and laws and values, and you can cooperate.

相反,人类不只用他们的言语描绘实践,也用来发明新的、虚拟的实践。人类会说:“看!天主就在咱们的云端之上(监督着众生)!假如你不依照我的旨意去行事,你死去的时分就会被天主赏罚,咒骂你下阴间去。”假如你们信赖了我所发明出来的故事,你们就会去遵从一致的行为准则、规矩和价值了。然后你就能够与别人协作了。

This is something only humans can do. You can never convince a chimpanzee to give you a banana by promising him, "... after you die, you'll go to chimpanzee heaven ..." (Laughter) "... and you'll receive lots and lots of bananas for your good deeds. So now give me this banana."

这一切只要人福利共享类才能够做到。你是永久无法压服一只大猩猩会给你一根香蕉,仅仅许诺他说:“你死了之后,将会升上大猩猩的天堂(笑声),你会由于你现在的德行而取得十分多的香蕉。所以赠我一根香蕉吧!”

No chimpanzee will ever believe such a story. Only humans believe such stories, which is why we control the world, whereas the chimpanzees are locked up in zoos and research laboratories.

从来没有猩猩会信赖这种故事,只要人类才会信赖。这便是为什么咱们能操控着这个国际,而大猩猩它们只能被地点动物园和实验室里边。

Now you may find it acceptable that yes, in the religious field, hum制作信用卡ans cooperate by believing in the same fictions. Millions of people come together to build a cathedral or a mosque or fight in a crusade or a jihad, because they all believe in the same stories about God and heaven and hell.

现在你或许会开端承受——没错,在宗教的范畴里边,人类经过坚信同一个故事往来不断通力协作。成千上百万的人会齐聚一同,大兴土木制作一间天主教堂或许一座清真寺,或是一同在TED英语讲演|《人类简史》作者:为什么人类会兴起-betway体育官网_betway官网手机版_betway文娱十字军东征或护教运动中并肩作战。由于他们都深坚信赖同一个关于天主、天堂和地煌夜沁雪狱的故事。

But what I want to emphasize is that exactly the same mechanism underlies all other forms of mass-scale human cooperation, not only in the religious field.Take, for example, the legal field. Most legal systems today in the world are based on a belief in human rights. But what are human rights?

但我愈加想着重的是,正是这同一种机理能够解说其它一切方式的人类大规模协作活动,而不只仅在宗教范畴中才适用。举个比方,在法令的范畴中,国际上如今大部分的法令体系是根据咱们关于人权的信仰。可是,人权是什么呢?

Human rights, just like God and heaven, are just a story that we've invented. They are not an objective reality; they are not some biological effect about homo sapiens.Take a human being, cut him open, look inside, you will find the heart, the kidneys, neurons, hormones, DNA, but you won't find any rights.

人权正如天主和天堂相同,它仅仅咱们发明出来的故事罢了。它们并非客观存在的实践,它们也不是某种关于人类的生物学效果。拿一个人,切开他看看里边的东西,你会找到心脏、肾脏、神经元、荷尔蒙激素、DNA,可是你不会找到一种叫“权力”的东西。

The only place you find rights are in the stories that we have invented and spread around ov肌肉男搞基er the last few centuries. They may be very positive stories, very good stories, but they're still just fictional stories that we've invented.

你仅有能够找到权力的当地,只要在曩昔几个世纪里咱们发明出来并四处传达宣传开来的故事傍边。它们或许是很积极向上的、很好的故事愿景,但它们TED英语讲演|《人类简史》作者:为什么人类会兴起-betway体育官网_betway官网手机版_betway文娱一直仅仅咱们随便制造出来的故事。

The same is true of the political field. The most important factors in modern politics are states and nations. But what are states a余罪小说nd nations? They are not an objective reality.

这一规矩也适用于政治范畴。现代政治中最重要的要素便是州与国家。可是什么是州和国家?它们不是客观实践。

A mountain is an objective reality. You can see it, you can touch it, you can ever smell it. But a nation or a state, like Israel or Iran or France or Germany, this is just a story that we've invented and became extremely attached to.The same is true of the economic field. The most important actors today in the global economy are companies and corporations. Many of you today, perhaps, work for a corporation, like Google or Toyota or McDonald's. What exactly are these things? They are what lawyers call legal fictions. They are stories invented and maintained by the powerful wizards we call lawyers.

一座山是客观实践。你能够看到它,接触它,甚赤焰战场2至闻到它。但一个国家或一个州,像是伊斯兰或伊朗或法国或德国,仅仅咱们发明并极度沉迷的一个故事。经济范畴也如此。当今全球经济中最重要的人物便是公司和企业了。今日,你们许多人,或许为一个公司作业,比方谷歌或丰田或麦当劳。这些公司究竟是什么呢?它们是律师所谓的法令虚拟。他们是被咱们称为力量强壮的巫师的律师所发明并保持的教义。

(Laughter) And what do corporations do all day? Mostly, they try to make money. Yet, what is money? Again, money is not an objective reality; it has no objective value. Take this green piece of paper, the dollar bill. Look at it -- it has no value. You cannot eat it, you cannot drink it, you cannot wear it.

这些公司整天在做什么呢?首要来说,它们尽力赚钱。可是,什么是钱呢?相同,钱也不是客观实践;它没有客观价值。拿这张绿色的纸 美钞 来说吧。看看它,它没有价值。你不能吃它,你不能喝它,你不能穿上他。

But then came along these master storytellers -- the big bankers, the finanTED英语讲演|《人类简史》作者:为什么人类会兴起-betway体育官网_betway官网手机版_betway文娱ce ministers, the prime ministers -- and they tell us a very convincing story: "Look, you see this green piece o郭晓冬f paper? It is actually worth 10 bananas."

可是随后就来了这些大师级其他讲故事的人――那些大银行家,财政部长,辅弼。――他们给咱们讲了一个令人信服的故事:“看,你看到这张绿色的纸了吗?它实践上值10个香蕉。”

And if I believe it, and you believe it, and everybody believes it, it actually works. I can take this worthless piece of paper, go to the supermarket, give it to a complete stranger whom I've never met before, and get, in exchange, real bananas which I can actually eat. This is something amazing.

假如我信赖这个故事,你也信赖,咱们都信赖,它就起效果了。我能够拿着这张无价值的纸,去超市,把它给我素未谋面的陌生人,作为交流得到我能真实吃到的香蕉。这是令人惊奇的事儿。

You 张艺兴图片could never do it with chimpanzees. Chimpanzees trade, of course: "Yes, you give me a coconut, honourI'll give you a banana." That can work. But, you give me a worthless piece of paper and you except me to give you a banana? No way! What do you think I am, a human? (Laughter)

你对黑猩猩就永久不能做这种事儿。当然,黑猩猩也交易:“是的,你给我一个椰子,我会给你一个香蕉。”那能行得通。可是,你给我一张没价值的纸然后你期望我给你一个香蕉?没门儿!你以为我是什么,人类吗?

Money, in fact, is the most successful story ever invented and told by humans, because it is the only story everybody believes. Not everybody believes in God, not everybody believes in human rights, not everybody believes in nationalism, but everybody believes in money, and in the dollar bill.Take, even, Osama Bin Laden. He hated American politics and American religion and American culture, but he had no objection to American dollars. He was quite fond of them, actually.

钱,事实上,是人类发明并叙述的最成功的故事,由于它是仅有一个咱们都信赖的故事。不是一切人都信赖神,不是一切人都信赖人权,不是一切人都信赖民族主义,可是一切人都信赖钱和美钞。乃至拿奥萨玛 本拉登来说吧。他憎恶美国政治美国宗教和美国文明,可是他一点都不对立美元。事实上,他还想当喜爱它们。

To conclude, then: We humans control the world because we live in a dual reality. All other animals live in an objective reality. Their reality consists of objective entities, like rivers and trees and lions and elephants.We humans, we also live in an objective reality. In our world, too, there are rivers and trees and lions and elephants.

那么,总结一下吧:咱们人类操控着国际由于咱们日子在两层实践中。一切其他的动物日子在一个客观实践中。他们的实践由客观的存在组成,像河流,树木,狮子和大象。咱们人类也日子在客观国际里。在咱们的国际也有河水,树木,狮子和大象。

But over the centuries, we have constructed on top of this objective reality a second layer 陈家祠of fictional reality, a reality made of fictional entities, like nations, like gods, like money, like corporations.And what is amazing is that as history unfolded, this fictional reality became more and more powerful so that today, the most powerful forces in the world are these fictional entities.

在曩昔几个世纪,咱们在这个客观存在的国际之上又树立了第二层虚拟的实践。这实践是根据虚拟的实体而树立的,如国家,天主,金钱,公司。并且更令人惊奇的是,研讨前史咱们会发现,这虚拟的实践越来越有强壮而有生命力。以至于今日,国际上最有力的束缚兵器竟然是这些虚拟实体。

Today, the very survival of rivers and trees and lions and elephants depends on theTED英语讲演|《人类简史》作者:为什么人类会兴起-betway体育官网_betway官网手机版_betway文娱 decisions and wishes of fictional entities, like the United States, like Google, like the World Bank -- entities that exist only in our own imagination.

时至今日,河流,树木,狮子,大象的生死存亡取决于这些虚拟实体的决议与志愿,如美国,谷歌,国际银行等,这些仅在咱们人类的规矩中有含义的虚拟实体。

ThaTED英语讲演|《人类简史》作者:为什么人类会兴起-betway体育官网_betway官网手机版_betway文娱nk you.(Applause)

谢谢 拍手。

Bruno Giussani: Yuval, you have a new bgalaxyook out.

布鲁诺:尤哇,你出了一本新书哦~

After Sapiens, you wrote another one, and it's out in Hebrew, but not yet translated into ...

在《现代人》后,你用希伯来语写了一本新书,现已上市了。但还没翻译成……

Yuval Noah Harari: I'm working on the translation as we speak.

尤哇:我正在翻译这本书。

BG: In the book, if I understand it correctly, you argue that the amazing breakthroughs that we are experiencing right now not only will potentially make our lives better, but they will create -- and I quote you -- "... new classes and new class struggles, just as the industrial revolution did."

布鲁诺:在书里边,假如我了解得没错的话,你以为咱们现在阅历这些惊人的打破和前进不只仅会逐步令咱们的日子变得更好,并且会发明,恕我引证原文“一个新的阶层和阶层斗争,正如工业革命相同”。

Can you elaborate for us?

能够具体为咱们讲讲吗?

YNH: Yes. In the industrial revolution, we saw the creation of a new class of the urban proletariat.And much of the political and social history of the last 200 years involved what to do with this class, and the new problems and opportunities.Now, we see the creation of a new massive class of useless people.

是的,在工业革命,咱们见到一个新的,无产阶层的诞生。并且,在曩昔200年的政治和社会前史中,这个阶层,以及一些新的机会和问题也与此有关。现在咱们能够看到一批数量巨大的废柴阶层。

As computers become better and better in more and more fields, there is a distinct possibility that computers will out-perform us in most tasks and will make humans redundant.And then the big political and economic question of the 21st century will be, "What do we need humans for?", or at least, "What do we need so many humans for?"

正如现在电脑在许多方面都越来越好,很有或许电脑会比咱们体现更棒,令人类变得剩余。而21世纪在一个在政治和经济方面的大问题是“咱们要人类来做什么?”,至少“咱们要那么多人干嘛?”

BG: Do you have an answer in the book?

布鲁诺:那你在书里边有答复吗?

YNH: At present, the best guess we have is to keep them happy with drugs and computer games ... (Laughter) but this doesn't sound like a very appealing future.

现在,让这些人高兴的最佳方法便是让他们多打游戏、多磕药。尽管这并不是一个光亮的未来。

BG: Ok, so you're basically saying in the book and now, that for all the discussion about the growing evidence of significant economic inequality, we are just kind of at the beginning of the process?

诺鲁诺:好的。那你在书中和现在都传达的意思是,现在,咱们一切评论的不断出现的显着的经济不平衡的现状也仅仅这个进程的开端?

YNH: Again, it's not a prophecy; it's seeing all kinds of possibilities before us. One possibility is this creation of a new massive class of useless people. Another possibility is the division of humankind into different biological castes, with the rich being upgraded into virtual gods, and the poor being degraded to this level of useless people.

尤哇:再次着重,这也仅仅猜测。咱们在探究一切的或许性。一种或许是发生一个巨大新的阶层——无用之人。另一个或许是人类会分红不同的阶层,有钱人就好像看得见的神相同。而贫民只能渐渐降级到无用之人的阶层。

BG: I feel there is another TED talk coming up in a 珍珠粉year or two. Thank you, Yuval, for making the trip.

布鲁诺:我感觉这一两年内你会在这儿有一个新的TED讲演哦。谢谢你,尤哇,特别飞过来为咱们叙述。

YNH: Thanks! (Applause)

尤哇说:谢谢!拍手。

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